[30], C. megacephala has a beneficial and practical value apart from being significant in forensic investigations; this blowfly is the source of pollination for mangos in the Australian region. Hystrix It J Mamm 24(1):59–66. Forensic insect field identification cards. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.04.006, Dujardin JP (2008) Morphometrics applied to medical entomology. C. rufifacies is known to cannibalize maggot masses and is thus a huge competitor. The plastron reached the micropyle and ended in a “Y” anteriorly and posteriorly both of which were rounded ( Fig. To minimize this effect, we removed any obscure landmarks when using a two-dimensional image of cephalopharyngeal skeleton as a sample. Therefore, in the current research, GM was employed to analyze the development of forensically important blow fly larvae represented by shape changes in cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Scatter plot along CV1 (97.229%) and CV2 (2.179%) axes shows the variation in cephalopharyngeal skeleton shapes grouped by equal frequency ellipse (p = 0.9). Doe, Peter E. "Fish Drying and Smoking" Production and Quality. Mol Ecol Resour 11(2):353–357. Calliphoridae is one of the families with the greatest number of species with forensic importance, which immature stages feed and develop on decaying material. 2017) or 3D morphometrics (Bai and Yang 2014). Disposition occurred on all landmarks during development and was further discriminated based on age groups. In contrast with its body length, the measurement based on cephalopharyngeal skeleton morphometry was more reliable and consistent to be used as growth parameter in forensic entomology (Rabbani and Zuha 2017; Eliza and Zuha 2018). However, for future studies, we recommend using an equal amount of sample size between groups and to reassess the GM landmarks. 2009; Schutze et al. Chrysomya megacephala is widely distributed over the Oriental and Australasian regions, also occurring in many neighbouring parts of the Palaearctic Region (Zumpt 1965). The colonization of C. megacephala prior to C. rufifacies must be taken into account. b Second instar. 33. C. megacephala has a relatively[clarification needed] long lifespan as an adult which has helped the species become successful at invading new geographical areas. Landmarks used for cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape description in the present study were limited to five landmarks instead of the eight used by Nuñez and Liria (2016), because of some clearly undeveloped structures in the first instar larvae such as apical hook, union between hypostomal sclerite and the mouth hook, and dorsal apodeme of mouth hook. Prior to morphometric analysis, landmark coordinates were inspected for outliers. Cephalopharyngeal skeleton was obtained by removing larval internal content and adhering tissue in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (Rabbani and Zuha 2017). Bull Ent Res 79(4):625–629. The two-dimensional images were then converted to a readable format using tpsUtil (version 1.74) and landmarks were plotted by using tpsDig2 (version 2.31) (download link: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/). thesis, Louisiana State University. Anat Rec 298:5–28. Hydrobiologia 670:5–22. On the ontogenetic allometric effect, regression analysis on the Procrustes coordinates on centroid size among age groups revealed a significant relationship between cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape variation and size (permutation 10,000 rounds in MorphoJ: p < 0.0001). "Entomology". A matter of concern that demands further investigation is the coplanarity of landmarks on cephalopharyngeal skeleton, as the actual three-dimensional shape could have been distorted when projected as a two-dimensional image. [citation needed], C. megacephala prefer warm climates, and display a correlation between warmer temperatures and higher fecundity. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-3-15, Day DM, Wallman JF (2008) Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates. Article  There was a similar relationship between wing and tibia size and fecundity. PubMed  Learn how and when to remove this template message, http://dominica.tamu.edu/student%20projects/Dominica%20Projects%20pdf%20copy/Cammack_Jonathan.pdf, "Dynamics of Experimental Populations of Native and Introduced Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Mathematical Modelling and the Transition from Asymptotic Equilibrium to Bounded Oscillations", http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-07102009-110514/, https://books.google.com/books?id=_eATME6TvigC&pg=PA177, https://books.google.com/books?id=DAa0BzT7Mf0C&pg=PA95, "Larval density, temperature and biological aspects of, https://books.google.com/books?id=_eATME6TvigC&pg=PA177&dq=chrysomya+megacephala&ei=ApvBSaamK4XEzQTr_IDwCQ#PPR8,M1, 10.1603/0022-2585(2008)45[785:LCOCMA]2.0.CO;2. Introduction The fly larvae of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Achoetandrus rufifacies (Diptera: Callipho-ridae), We also wish to thank Ms. Sharifah Shakilah Abdullah for her kind assistance during research. 2014). Descriptive statistics of cephalopharyngeal skeleton centroid size in both study replicates are summarized in Table 1. Considering the practicality of geometric morphometrics which could discriminate insect species, this application was extended to the analysis of blow fly larval growth based on cephalopharyngeal skeleton. In an experiment, 95% of the infecting flies were found to be C. London: Springer, 1997. Cephaloskeleton present in anterior end; dorsal cornu longer than ventral cornua; accessory sclerite, parastomal sclerite present; anterodorsal process apparent (Fig. The regression function in MorphoJ was used to determine ontogenetic allometry which is the influence of size changes on the shape. The male exon is less conserved than its flanking exons, though portions, including a splice site for TRA and the RNA-binding protein Transformer 2 (TRA2), are highly similar between species (reviewed in Scott et al. For Chrysomyia Macquart, 1834, see Microchrysa. M.A. Part of Springer Nature. On the following day, at 0900 hours, newly emerged first instar larvae were transferred evenly into five freshly prepared rearing containers labeled as day 1 to day 5. megacephala. Eur J Entomol 110(3):461–468. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Bulygina E, Mitteroecker P, Aiello L (2006) Ontogeny of facial dimorphism and patterns of individual development within one human population. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2008.07.011, Eliza P, Zuha RM (2018) Preliminary assessment of cephalopharyngeal skeleton length and body length of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedermann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae as potential parameters to estimate minimum post mortem interval. Pairwise comparison of centroid sizes between sampling intervals indicated the shape mostly transformed during early developmental stages (Table 2). a First instar. Geometric wing morphometrics for Chrysomya albiceps and C. megacephala identification (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Venezuela. CVA was used to display differences among groups that are relative to within-group variation based on multivariate data (Webster and David Sheets 2010). have a potential to estimate age of immature C. megacephala, and possibly in other flies species, and might further be used to determine the PMI. Front Zool 3(15). The long adult lifespan means that the parents are present to rear the offspring, ensuring their survival. When C. rufifacies and C. megacephala larvae are put into cultures separately from one another in high densities, C. megacephala has a higher rate of survival than C. rufifacies. Parasite Vector 10(55). 2003). The assessments of this analysis were based on centroid size measurements, visualization on the landmarks displacements, classification of the relative landmarks by using canonical variate analysis, and ontogenetic allometry determination. Folio Parasit 63(037). All three of these values variables, fecundity, wing size and tibia size, stay within the same range throughout the year, showing seasonal variation to be absent. 2008; Kumara et al. Parasite Vector 10(229). Florida: CRC Press, 2001. Therefore, previous researches suggested cephalopharyngeal skeleton as an alternative growth parameter to larval body length because of its measurement consistency and positive allometry with larval body length (Eliza and Zuha 2018; Rabbani and Zuha 2017). Sim, LX., Zuha, R.M. [36], Public health importance and management control. Chrysomya albiceps is also known to prey on C. megacephala during the larval stage when they must compete for the same food source. Chrysomya megacephala eggs were obtained from fresh baits placed in an open area adjacent to Forensic Entomology Laboratory, Forensic Science Program, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi. 2017). Google Scholar, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Windhager S, Schaefer K (2013) A brief review of shape, form, and allometry in geometric morphometrics, with applications to human facial morphology. Larvae of Chrysomya species were obtained from eggs laid by females in cultures established from flies wild-caught and maintained at the University of Wollongong (Ch. 2013) whereby the deformation of cephalopharyngeal skeleton shape shifted inward based on the selected landmarks. Med Vet Entomol 2:1):1–1):6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1988.tb00043.x, Szpila K, Hall MJR, Sukontason KL, Tantawi TI (2013) Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Int J Legal Med 127(1):231–241. The “lollipop” diagram with dots indicate the average starting shape and the lines are the movement of landmark to the target shape. Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy is one of the most forensically important blow fly genera. Plos One 6(10):e25630. Chrysomya megacephala is a saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield biomass and bio‐fertilizer simultaneously. Byrd, Jason H., and James L. Castner. However, there were drawbacks when using larval body length because it can be affected by specimens handling (Tantawi and Greenberg 1993; Adams and Hall 2003; Day and Wallman 2008; Richards et al. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Egypt J Forensic Sci 8(39). [citation needed] Tropical forests on the Pacific Islands, such as Samoa, are home to the normal form; the normal is considered to be the plesiomorphic form of C. GM analysis on C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeleton can be useful to discriminate larval age group and aid growth visualization based on landmark displacements. In the present study, the geometric morphometric analysis produced a visual classification of C. megacephala cephalopharyngeal skeletons based on their age groups. LXS and RMZ conducted the research and organized the structure of the manuscript. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00117.x, Klingenberg CP (2011) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics. 2012; Badenhorst and Villet 2018). [24] Beetles are also known to prey on C. megacephala. It is a warm-weather fly with a greenish-blue metallic box-like body. Google Scholar, Bai M, Yang X (2014) A review of three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics and its application in entomology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20317, CAS  2005; Scalici et al. PubMed Central  2) served as a visual aid to explain the growth of cephalopharyngeal skeletons. Geometric morphometric analysis of cephalopharyngeal skeleton was carried out by using MorphoJ software (Klingenberg 2011) (download link: http://www.flywings.org.uk/morphoj_page.htm_), which includes visualization of landmark shifts and canonical variate analysis (CVA) to provide graphical ordination of individuals and groups in multidimensional space, followed by cross-validation test in discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify individuals in separate groups. Chrysomya megacephala, more commonly known as the oriental latrine fly, is a member of the family Calliphoridae (blowflies). Figure 2 displays shape changes along CV1 (97.2%) axis with landmark 2 (dorsal cornu) and 4 (ventral cornu) displaying the most variation, followed by landmark 1 (anterodorsal process) and 5 (base of parastomal bar). http://www.flywings.org.uk/morphoj_page.htm_, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2003.08.010, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-006-0086-x, https://doi.org/10.1080/20961790.2018.1426136, https://doi.org/10.1590/S0031-10492010004700001, https://doi.org/10.3897/szookeys.540.6012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.04.006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2008.07.011, https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-018-0070-x, https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6292, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1997.tb00026.x, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00117.x, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02924.x, https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-7691, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00427-016-0539-2, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2012.00200.x, https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.1-6369, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-015-0297-0, https://doi.org/10.5958/0973-9130.2017.00100.1, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-012-0683-9, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2005000300019, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-011-0675-7, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-1982-2, https://doi.org/10.1080/11250000903039794, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485311000423, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejfs.2013.04.002, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2163-z, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-0895-6, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300018770, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1988.tb00043.x, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2012.01030.x, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025630, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1089332600001868, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-019-0158-y. https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2013.061, Greenberg B, Kunich JC (2002) Entomology and the law: flies as forensic indicators. 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