Detailed plot synopsis reviews of Evidence That Demands A Verdict, Vol. Their enumerations differ from one presentation to another, but the following facts appear again and again on the lists.48. After utilizing Craig’s version of the kalâm cosmological argument in support of theism (73-84), Beckwith returns to Hume’s argument against miracles, focusing now on modern reformulations and defenses of Hume’s argument. Thus Mark’s Gospel was based on Peter’s recollections; Matthew, himself an apostle, wrote his Gospel while the other apostles were still alive; Luke was written by Paul’s traveling companion; and John the apostle wrote the Gospel bearing his name (32-34). Apologists of a more classical orientation have also used this threefold test, including one of the present authors; see Ken Boa and Larry Moody, I’m Glad You Asked, 2d ed. Moreover, if on the basis of the evidence we conclude that God probably does exist, then, given that God is good and all-powerful, we may conclude that God is justified in permitting evil even if we do not know what his reason or reasons may be (61). This new problem is not whether God and evil both exist, but “how both can exist” (64). Evidence That Demands a Verdict provides expansive defense of Christianity's core truths and thoughtful responses to the Bible's most difficult and extraordinary passages. 31), and the last chapter deals with the knowability of history in general (ch. 41 Beckwith, David Hume’s Argument against Miracles; see also his “History and Miracles,” in In Defense of Miracles, edited by Geivett and Habermas, 86-98. Among important books in the defense of Christianity, this one has few equals. Jesus was publicly executed and died on a Roman cross. Granted (at least for the sake of argument) that it is possible that God created a world where evil exists, how likely is this to be in fact the case? The Gospel testimony that the first persons to see Jesus alive were women is self-evidently reliable. Beckwith’s second condition for an event to be regarded as a miracle is that it have an historical-religious significance. This phenomenon is often called the “fine-tuning” of the universe. 51 See especially Craig, “Empty Tomb of Jesus,” in In Defense of Miracles, edited by Geivett and Habermas, 247-261. Scientists often operate by the ideal that everything can and should eventually be explained scientifically, and the big bang presents an apparent dead end to this ideal. John Leslie (New York: Macmillan, 1990), 154-73; William Lane Craig, “The Teleological Argument and the Anthropic Principle,” in The Logic of Rational Theism: Exploratory Essays, ed. The two leading apologists writing on the Resurrection in the past twenty years or so have been Gary Habermas46 and William Lane Craig.47 Although Craig is a classical apologist, his position is in many ways compatible with evidentialism. “Introduction” – Here Sean and Josh take some valuable space to deal with misconceptions about Christianity and the “assumptions behind those misconceptions.” I thought this was a very thoughtful section to add. Again, Hugh Ross is a scientist-apologist who has given this argument a great deal of prominence,33 though it is now widely used in evidentialist apologetics.34 The following table summarizes just ten of the more than fifty factors that have been identified in the anthropic principle.35, Heavy elements spread too thin for rocky planets to form, Planetary orbits would be destabilized by nearby stars, Too much ammonia and methane in atmosphere, Volcanoes and earthquakes in much greater measure, In addition to scientific, empirical reworkings of the classical theistic arguments, most evidentialists emphasize the evidence for God’s existence from his acts in history. The Resurrection appearances are shown to be authentic history for similar reasons.52 Again, the accounts of the appearances, especially in 1 Corinthians 15:6-8, are too early to have arisen as myths or legends. Paul’s writings claim to be written by Paul, and the Gospels, especially Luke and John, claim to be recording history based on eyewitness testimony (29-30). According to Montgomery, “What modern man insists on above all is a verifiable base for his faith, so that he can bring some order out of the conflicting welter of religious claims.”21 Christianity has miracles, fulfilled prophecies, and other evidences that the God of the Bible is the true God; other religions do not have these phenomena. Arnold Weigel is an extreme example of the latter: “In opposing the traditional rational proofs of God’s existence, [Bertrand] Russell is destroying a straw man, not the Christian position. Evidence That Demands a Verdict is an easy-to-read, front-line defense for Christians facing the tough questions of critics and skeptics. Although some evidentialists focus their apologetic on the scientific evidence for creation, by far the majority concentrate on defending the claims of Jesus Christ, and the overwhelming focus of these defenses pertains to belief in his resurrection from the dead. Flew asked us to imagine a situation in which we are told that an invisible gardener visits a garden every day and tends it. I’ll quote each section (or set of sections) and give an explanation. 25), and finally (phew! 10), the issue of Christianity being a copy-cat religion (ch. But Beckwith does not see this as a liability. Amazon.in - Buy The New Evidence That Demands a Verdict, 1999 Edition: Fully Updated book online at best prices in India on Amazon.in. . For example, it is at least logically possible that creating such a world was unavoidable if God was to create people with a moral capacity for making choices. 23), the writing of Isaiah (ch. Jesus’ tomb was discovered empty the Sunday after his burial. : University Press of America, 1989), 73-84. . In the case of the fine-tuning argument, we actually have good, objective data from which to derive a reasonable estimate of the probability of the universe just happening to be the kind capable of having and sustaining intelligent living beings. “God cannot be impersonal, personal, transcendent, polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, able to beget, not able to beget, relevant, and irrelevant all at the same time. Later we will consider the evidentialist approach to the miracles of the Bible; here we will highlight the argument from fulfilled prophecy. Evidence That Demands a Verdict - Introduction SECTION III. 7 Bernard Ramm, Protestant Christian Evidences (Chicago: Moody Press, 1953), 85. Should we believe the gardener exists despite the fact that every attempt to observe his movements fails? : Rowman & Littlefield, 1993). . Only at this point does Beckwith discuss God’s existence. 8 John A. Bloom, “Truth Via Prophecy,” in Evidence for Faith, edited by Montgomery, 175-76. Newman, 111-18. Collins, Steven. 14 Newman, “The Testimony of Messianic Prophecy,” in Evidence for Faith, ed. In other words, these are factors that must be just right—often within a very small range—for us to be here noticing them in the first place. The bibliographical test seeks to determine whether the existing or extant copies of a document are reliable reproductions of the wording of the original document. Here Montgomery and other evidentialists insist “that the benefit of the doubt is to be given to the document itself, not arrogated by the critic to himself” (29). Irreconcilable data gives us no knowledge of God whatsoever.”20, Second, evidentialists maintain that Christianity has a solid claim to be the only true religion because it alone can produce testable evidence of God’s activity in establishing Christianity in the first place. Jesus forgave sins that had not been committed against him; he made statements that the Jewish authorities understandably interpreted as blasphemous claims to deity; he spoke on the Law of God as if it was his to define and apply. Josh and Sean McDowell are releasing a book this week that is a foundational resource for apologetics in our time. It invites readers to bring their doubts and doesn't shy away from the tough questions. There is no evidence that demands a positive verdict from every reasonable person.” Among important books in the defense of Christianity, this one has few equals. Collins concludes that “the relevant probability estimates in the case of the fine-tuning argument are much more secure than those estimates in the probabilistic version of the atheist’s argument from evil.”40, Evidentialists believe that miracles, like fulfilled prophecy, can be used in the verification of the supernatural. 1. Evidence That Demands a Verdict, Volume 1: Historical Evidences for the Christian Faith by Josh McDowell. According to John Warwick Montgomery, “The final and best evidence of God’s existence lies in his Word—in the triple sense of Christ, the gospel he proclaimed, and the Scripture that infallibly conveys it.”1 This statement nicely captures the spirit of the evangelical evidentialist apologetic. Scientists should not shy away from concluding that God created the universe if that is where the evidence leads, as Douglas Geivett, an evidentialist philosopher, has argued. However, if the testimonial evidence is multiplied and reinforced by circumstantial considerations . Note: We are a 501(c3) Non-Profit organization. Hence, the fact that one cannot find deductive validity for any scientific law only means that our judgments about events purporting to violate these laws cannot reach the point of apodictic certainty. That is, they do not examine the evidence for particular miracles per se, but dispense with miracles in general prior to the examination of the evidence” (121). . One may wonder why, if the vast majority of biblical scholars acknowledge these facts, so many of them question the Resurrection. Read The New Evidence That Demands a Verdict, 1999 Edition: Fully Updated book reviews & author details and more at Amazon.in. Barrow and Tipler report the major findings but reject the idea of divine design; Corey finds the evidence supportive of a divine Designer and Creator. Why? (1) It must be clear. 47 Craig, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy (1985); Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus, Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity, vol. Specifically, the theory that God exists helps explain the existence of the world (the cosmological argument), its order and basic beauty (the teleological argument), as well as human consciousness (the argument from mind) and morality (the moral argument).25, Likewise, William Lane Craig has developed the cosmological and teleological proofs into complex arguments combining philosophical reasoning with scientific evidence. You’ll also notice a variety of endorsements across the board from different professions which is a testimony to the impact earlier versions of this book have had in the past. 11), the deity of Jesus (ch. In the early 1970s, the publication of Josh McDowell’s “Evidence That Demands a Verdict” caused a sensation. Flew’s extensive discussions and debates with Habermas and other evangelical apologists directly contributed to his rethinking his longstanding position of atheism. The same material is found in Montgomery, Where Is History Going, 37-52. To Hume’s argument that the miracle stories of differing religions cancel one another out, Beckwith replies that some miracle stories are of more profound significance than others, and that the most impressive and significant kind of miracle is resurrection from the dead. 43 Citing David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, 3rd ed., rev. Second, Habermas and Craig refute objections to each of these generally recognized facts and offer additional support for each of these planks of the argument. 4. (1998). 54 Craig and Crossan, Will the Real Jesus Please Stand Up, 160. 17 Geisler, Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics, 609. 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